Stomatitis refers to oral mucosa diseases of different origins and manifestations.Stomatitis can be both an independent disease and a complication or manifestation of other diseases, such as scarlet fever, flue, measles, etc. Children are most susceptible to this disease.

Oral mucosa diseases are quite common, while their correct diagnostics may be difficult. It’s explained by the same progress of various diseases of both the oral cavity and the body in general. The general term stomatitis covers all oral mucosa diseases. If a certain area is damaged rather than the whole mucous membrane – tongue, lip or palate – the case is glossitis, cheilitis, or palatinitis, correspondingly.


The cause of stomatitis are various factors – the ones that affect the oral mucosa directly (local impact), as well as body diseases – the disorders of the digestive tract, cardiovascular system, weakened immunity, allergic reactions, metabolic diseases, and many others.

The local impact involves a direct factor – such as injury, chemical, thermal effects, radiation, resulting in reddening, erosion, ulcer on the mucosa.

Stomatitises developing in dental problems should be addressed separately. In this case, the cause is poor oral hygiene, excessive dental deposits, destroyed teeth, oral dysbacteriosis. Moreover, stomatitises may develop when the techniques of dental procedures are violated. Their cause is microtraumas, the use of dissimilar metals when treating and making dentures, the impact of chemical substances.


Based on clinical evidence, stomatitis can be:

  • catarrhal;
  • ulcerous;
  • aphthous.

What is catarrhal stomatitis?

Catarrhal stomatitis is the most common damage to the oral mucosa. The latter becomes hydropic, painful, reddened, it can be covered with a white or yellow deposit. There’s excessive salivation. Bleeding gums and bad breath may be observed.

What is ulcerative stomatitis?

Ulcerative stomatitis is a more serious disease than catarrhal one, it may develop both independently or be an advanced form of catarrhal stomatitis.As distinct from catarrhal stomatitis, which damages only the upper layer of the mucous membrane, ulcerative stomatitis damages all its thick.

Incipient characters are similar in catarrhal and ulcerative stomatitises, however, later in ulcerative stomatitis there are a rise of temperature to 37,5 С, weakness, headache, swollen and painful lymph glands. Eating provokes severe pain sensations. These symptoms call for visiting a doctor.

What is aphthous stomatitis?

Aphthous stomatitis is characterized by single or many aphthous ulcers occurring on the oral mucosa, in which ulcers may be large and deep. Aphthae can be oval or round with clear boundaries in the form of a narrow red line and grayish-yellow debris in the center.

The disease starts with a general unwell feeling, a temperature rise, pain sensations in the mouth where aphthae are located. Treating this type of ulcer is difficult, marks are left after its healing. Only a doctor should treat this disease.

In weakened immunity, infectious stomatitis may develop. It is caused by various microbes inhabiting the oral mucosa surface and remaining inactive until immunity is strong.

If you had stomatitis, the chances of disease recurrence are quite high, although its frequency is highly variable. If the disease occurs three-four times a year – this frequency can be called typical. However, in some people, stomatitis can become almost chronic – before ulcers heal, new ones appear.

As a rule, people from 10 to 20 years have their first stomatitis, and then as they grow older it reoccurs more rarely and less painfully.

About 20% of the population suffers from stomatitis.

There is no evidence of the infectious nature of stomatitis.

Preventive measures

Since the damage of oral tissues may cause stomatitis, such damage needs to be avoided. Broken teeth, rough or broken fillings, sharp-edged teeth – one needs to submit it all to a dentist. Adjusting prostheses with sharp or rigid edges is of paramount importance too. If you have braces, protruding parts and braces can be covered with a dental wax.

Brush your teeth with a brush and a floss carefully but thoroughly.

Among the first line of prevention for stomatitis is daily toothbrushing. This particularly affects pregnant women and teenagers.

What a doctor can do?

To treat stomatitis effectively, first, the cause of its origin should be established, which can be done only under the guidance of a doctor.

During oral cavity examination, dentist will carefully examine the surface of all teeth, discover the need for replacing the old fillings or treating damaged teeth, adjust dental prostheses.

Only a doctor should treat aphthous stomatitis.

When all stomatitis treatment measures were taken but it doesn’t pass off, it’s necessary to search for another cause for stomatitis, there’s likely a general disease, which can be detected and treated by a doctor only.

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