Periodontitis is called periodontal inflammation. The periodontium is a connective tissue that fills the narrow space between the tooth and its bone bed (the alveolar process of the jaw). In the periodontium there are nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels that feed the tooth. The main functions of the periodontal are shock-absorbing and trophic. When chewing food, the periodontal dampens the loads on the tooth and evenly redistributes them to the bones. There are acute and chronic periodontitis. Acute periodontitis is less common. This is due to the fact that due to the presence of outflow of contents, periodontitis can proceed for a long time without any signs of the disease against the background of ongoing and developing inflammation.
Most often periodontitis develops due to periodontal infection. Depending on the path of infection, intradental and extradental (intradental and extradubital) periodontitis are distinguished. Intradental periodontitis is mainly a complication of untreated pulpitis. Extradental periodontitis develops due to the transition of the inflammatory process from the surrounding tissues (osteomyelitis, sinusitis). In addition, traumatic and drug-induced periodontitis are isolated. Drug-induced periodontitis develops most often with improper treatment of pulpitis, when potent drugs or irritating materials enter the periodontium (for example, a paste containing arsenic, formalin, phenol).
Periodontitis is manifested by sharp pains in the area of the tooth, intensified by touching it. The swelling of the lip, cheeks, gums is enlarged, the tooth is mobile. Sometimes a hole is found on the gum, from which pus flows out. This is a fistula, i.e. a channel that was formed for the outflow of contents from the infected cavity. Chronic periodontitis can manifest itself in the form of unpleasant and mild pain (a feeling of heaviness, bursting, awkwardness, soreness with chewing load on this tooth).
Chronic periodontitis may not manifest itself for a long time and be detected accidentally on an X-ray during the treatment of adjacent teeth.
The diagnosis is made according to the characteristic clinical picture in combination with an X-ray examination.Upon examination, the doctor may detect redness or swelling of the gums, wounds from which pus may ooze.