Stomatitis is a name that combines diseases of the oral mucosa of various origins and manifestations. Stomatitis can be either an independent disease, or a complication or manifestation of others, such as: scarlet fever, flu, measles, etc. Children are most susceptible to the disease.
Diseases of the oral mucosa are quite common, but at the same time their correct diagnosis is difficult. This is due to the fact that various diseases not only of the oral cavity, but also of the entire body, can occur with the same manifestations. Diseases of the oral mucosa are united under a common name - stomatitis. If the mucous membrane of not the entire oral cavity is affected, but only a separate area - the tongue, lip or palate, then they talk about glossitis, cheilitis or palatinitis, respectively.
The cause of stomatitis can be various factors - those that directly affect the mucous membrane of the mouth (local exposure), as well as diseases of the body - diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, weakening of immune protection, allergic reactions, metabolic disorders and many others.
Local is associated with the participation of a direct factor of trauma, chemical, thermal, radiation exposure, as a result of which redness, erosion, and ulceration occur on the mucous membrane.
Stomatitis arising from dental problems deserves a separate conversation. In this case, the reason is the patients non-compliance with oral hygiene, abundant dental deposits, destroyed teeth, dysbiosis of the oral cavity. In addition, stomatitis can occur with violations in the technique of dental manipulation. They are caused by microtrauma, the use of dissimilar metals in the treatment and prosthetics, exposure to chemicals.
According to the clinical manifestation , stomatitis is divided into:
Catarrhal stomatitis is the most common lesion of the oral mucosa. At the same time, the mucous membrane of the mouth becomes edematous, painful, hyperemic, it may be covered with a white or yellow plaque. Hypersalivation (increased salivation) is noted. Bleeding gums may occur, bad breath may appear.
Ulcerative stomatitis is a more serious disease than catarrhal, it can develop both independently and be a neglected form of catarrhal.
Unlike catarrhal stomatitis, which affects only the surface layer of the mucous membrane, ulcerative stomatitis affects the entire thickness of the mucous membrane.
The initial signs of catarrhal and ulcerative stomatitis are similar, but later with ulcerative stomatitis there is an increase in temperature to 37.5 C, weakness, headache, enlargement and soreness of the lymph nodes. Eating is accompanied by severe pain. If such symptoms appear, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Aphthous stomatitis is characterized by the appearance of single or multiple aphthous ulcers on the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, in which ulcers are large and deep. Aphthae are oval or rounded in shape, with clear borders in the form of a narrow red border and a grayish-yellow bloom in the center.
The disease begins with a general malaise, an increase in body temperature, the appearance of pain in the mouth at the site of AFT formation. The treatment of such an ulcer is usually quite complicated, and after its healing, traces remain. The treatment of this disease should be handled by a doctor.
With weakened immunity, infectious stomatitis may occur, which is caused by various microbes that live on the surface of the oral mucosa and are inactive until the immune system is weakened.
If you have had stomatitis once, the probability of a recurrence of the disease is very high, although the frequency of these repetitions is extremely variable. If the disease recurs three or four times a year, this frequency can be called typical. In some people, however, stomatitis can become almost chronic - ulcers do not have time to heal, as new ones appear.
As a rule, for the first time stomatitis is ill at the age of 10 to 20 years, after which, as they grow older, it repeats less often and with less pain.
Stomatitis affects about 20% of the population.
There is no evidence that stomatitis is contagious.
Since trauma to the tissues of the mouth can cause the formation of stomatitis, one should beware of this kind of damage. Broken teeth, rough or broken fillings, teeth with sharp edges - all this should immediately be given to the dentist. It is necessary to fit prostheses with sharp or hard edges. If braces are installed, then the protruding parts and braces can be covered with dental wax. Brushing and flossing your teeth should be done carefully, but thoroughly.
As a prevention of stomatitis, you should brush your teeth daily. This is especially true for pregnant women and teenage children.
For effective treatment of stomatitis, you should first determine the cause of its occurrence, which can only be done under the guidance of a doctor.
When examining the oral cavity, the dentist will carefully examine the surface of all teeth, identify the need to replace existing fillings or treat damaged teeth, adjust dentures.
Only a doctor deals with the treatment of aphthous stomatitis.
In the case when all measures have been taken to treat stomatitis, and the stomatitis still does not go away, you need to look for another cause of stomatitis, most likely it is some kind of general disease of the body, the identification and treatment of which is handled only by a doctor.